Common Skin Disorders in Children
There are many different types of rashes that can affect children. These include eczema which causes itchy skin behind the knees, elbows and neck; hemangiomas which appear as red or purple lumps on the head, neck or body; and impetigo, which develops from bacterial infections of skin injuries and can spread easily.
Eczema is a long-term condition that causes itchy, dry skin. It occurs when the skin barrier breaks down. This can lead to symptoms like red rashes, itching and flaking. In some cases, eczema can cause blisters and open sores. Some children are more prone to this condition than others. They may have other allergies or asthma, and have a more sensitive immune system. It is also common for kids to experience eczema during stressful times in their life.
The exact cause of eczema isn’t known, but it is thought that it may be linked to a family history or other environmental factors. Certain genetic traits, including a variant in a gene for a protein called filaggrin, can increase the risk of developing the disease.
Most cases of eczema are mild and can be managed with the help of moisturizers, steroid creams or ointments and antihistamines. However, some children need more specialized treatment from an allergist, especially if they have severe or persistent symptoms.
Symptoms of eczema include red, scaly, itchy patches of skin that often have a thick texture and appear irritated and dry. This is because the skin is overextended by itching, which leads to a broken skin barrier. Several things can trigger a flare, such as dry or cold weather, stress, clothing, soaps, detergents, perfumes and wool. Changing to gentler products and using nonirritating fabrics can help ease symptoms.
Nummular dermatitis is another form of eczema, which develops coin-shaped areas on the arms, legs and torso. These areas itch and may ooze. They are most common in infants and young children, but can affect anyone. It’s important to monitor the area for signs of infection and contact a doctor if the condition doesn’t improve.
Another type of eczema is seborrheic dermatitis, which is most common in the scalp and other areas with lots of oil gland activity. It can look like dandruff or cradle cap. It is usually mild and can be managed with medication, but it sometimes flares up during times of stress or with other triggers.
Erythema multiforme is an acute inflammatory condition characterized by papular, bullous and sometimes necrotic lesions on the skin and mucous membranes. It is triggered by antigenic stimuli such as herpes viruses or medications. Symptoms are often associated with systemic symptoms such as fever, chills and fatigue. It may also affect the internal organs such as the lungs, eyes and genitals. Erythema multiforme is categorized into different severity variants including erythema multiforme minor, erythema multiforme major and Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). The classification depends on the extent of skin and mucous membrane involvement.
Symptoms of erythema multiforme include red, raised bumps that look like “targets.” These may be itchy or painful. They can appear all over the body, but are most common on the face, arms and legs. The bumps may have a dark center with lighter pink edges. The condition can also cause a rash on the eyes and mouth. It can be very painful and can limit your ability to eat and drink. It can even interfere with your breathing, which is why it’s important to seek treatment right away.
Your doctor can diagnose erythema multiforme by looking at your skin. They can also order a blood test to find the cause of your reaction. They can also do a biopsy, which involves taking a small piece of your skin and looking at it under a microscope. If your erythema multiforme is caused by medication, your doctor may change or stop your medication.
If you have a severe case of erythema multiforme, you may need to go to hospital. They can treat it with a strong steroid cream. They can also give you fluids and food to prevent dehydration. You should try to avoid scratching your skin. This can lead to an infection and scarring.
You should see your GP as soon as you notice a rash. They can refer you to a specialist in skin disease, called a dermatologist. They can help you manage your symptoms and recommend other treatments for a recurrence. This is a serious condition and can be fatal in some cases.
Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection that causes itchy, bumpy growths on the skin. The rash usually goes away on its own within 6 months, but it can take up to 4 years for the bumps to clear completely. Symptoms may include small or large clusters of flesh-colored, rounded bumps, which can appear anywhere on the body. It can also spread to the eyes, causing conjunctivitis or keratitis. It affects people of all ages, but it’s most common in children.
Typically, health care providers can diagnose the condition by looking at it. If they are unsure, they can use skin scrapings to test for the presence of the virus. There are several treatments for molluscum contagiosum, including freezing them (cryotherapy), burning them with a small blade or curette, or rubbing them with medicine that can make the bumps disappear more quickly.
The virus can be spread by touching the bumps or sharing towels or clothing that has come in contact with them. It can also be passed from parent to child, or between siblings. It can be found in any age group, but it’s more common among children under 10. It is not a serious illness, and the majority of cases go away on their own without treatment.
It’s important to see a dermatologist to get the proper diagnosis and treatment. Unlicensed, over-the-counter products are unlikely to treat molluscum contagiosum and could cause an allergic reaction or other complications.
There are many things you can do to help prevent molluscum contagiosum, such as using mild soaps and avoiding rough cloths. You should also avoid contact with anyone who has the condition until all bumps have cleared up. It’s also important to practice good hygiene, including washing your hands well and covering the rash with loose clothing if possible. You should not try to remove the molluscum contagiosum yourself, as this can lead to scarring or infection. Instead, visit a dermatologist or healthcare provider. They will be able to prescribe treatments that are safe for you and your family. They can also advise you on what to do if the condition is spreading or getting worse.
Pityriasis rosea (pit-er-EE-uh-sis ROSE-ee-uh) is a very common skin problem that occurs in most children and young adults, especially in autumn and spring. It is not contagious and usually clears without treatment in one to two months. Until it does, you should focus on controlling the itching. Lotions and antihistamines may help. Medicated baths can also soothe itching, as can cool compresses and oatmeal baths. Exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light treatments can speed clearing, but you must avoid sunburn.
The rash starts with a single large, scaly patch in the shape of a circle or an oval. This patch, which is called the herald patch, is pink or salmon-colored on lighter skin, and purple or red-brown in darkly pigmented skin. Within a week, it is followed by smaller patches that are also scaly but look crinkly and loose in the middle. The scaly patches are most common on the trunk, arms, legs and neck, but they can be anywhere on the body. Sometimes, the rash spreads to the face or groin.
Symptoms include itching, redness and swelling of the rash. In addition, some kids get itchy, sore throat and fever, or headache. This rash is more common in warm climates and it seems to affect boys more than girls. It is more likely to appear in the fall and spring, but it can occur year-round.
The cause of pityriasis rosea isn’t known. It’s probably a viral infection, but it hasn’t been proven. Some experts think it may be due to a yeast infection, but this hasn’t been proven either.
This rash is very common in the world and is found in all cultures. It is more likely to happen in people with fair complexions than darker ones, but it can appear in anyone, regardless of race or age. It’s most common in the middle ages, from 10 to 35, but it can occur at any age. In one study, a lot of women who got pityriasis rosea during pregnancy experienced miscarriages. Pregnant women should see a doctor right away if they have the rash.