The Environment

Some Topics


  • Ocean Garbage

    The oceans have deteriorated because of human exploitation, ignorance and neglect. The assault on ocean heath is multifaceted and global. Increasingly, environmental action groups have had success in ameliorating the damage. Some more enlightened governments have passed laws to protect marine environments and developed enforcement infrastructures.

    The great Pacific garbage patch was described in a 1988 paper published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States. The description was based on results obtained by several Alaska-based researchers between 1985 and 1988 that measured plastic in the North Pacific Ocean. Researchers found high concentrations of marine debris accumulating in regions governed by ocean currents. The pacific garbage is similar to other areas of concentrated marine debris in the world's oceans. These areas of debris accumulation are gathered by oceanic currents. In the Pacific, the area is bound by the North Pacific Gyre. The gyre's rotational pattern draws in waste material from across the North Pacific Ocean, including coastal waters off North America and Japan. As material is captured in the currents, wind-driven surface currents gradually move floating debris toward the center, trapping it in the region.

    One source of ocean pollution is discarded fishing gear such as buoys, lines, and nets. A 2011 US EPA report concluded that:” "The primary source of marine debris is the improper waste disposal or management of trash and manufacturing products, including plastics (e.g., littering, illegal dumping) . Debris is generated on land at marinas, ports, rivers, harbors, docks, and storm drains. Debris is generated at sea from fishing vessels, stationary platforms and cargo ships." Pollutants range in size from abandoned fishing nets to micro-pellets used in abrasive cleaners. Currents carry debris from the west coast of North America to the gyre in about six years and debris from the east coast of Asia in a year or less. [i]

    Tatiana Schlossberg reported on the small plastic particle pollution of the Arctic, She wrote:” Every year, about 8 million tons of plastic gets into the ocean, and scientists estimate that there may be as much as 110 million tons of plastic trash in the ocean. Though the environmental effects of plastic pollution are not fully understood, plastic pollution has made its way into the food chain. A major ocean current is carrying bits of plastic, mainly from the North Atlantic, to the Greenland and Barents seas, and leaving them there — in surface waters, in sea ice and possibly on the ocean floor. Most all of the Arctic plastic, measured by weight, was in fragments, ranging from 0.5 millimeters to 12.6 millimeters. Because climate change is already shrinking the Arctic sea ice cover, more human activity in this still-isolated part of the world is increasingly likely as navigation becomes easier. As a result, plastic pollution, which has grown significantly around the world since 1980, could spread more widely in the Arctic in decades to come.[ii]

    Photodegraded plastic disintegrates into ever smaller pieces while remaining a polymer. As the plastic flotsam photodegrades into smaller and smaller pieces, it concentrates in the upper water column and becomes small enough to be ingested by aquatic organisms that reside near the ocean's surface. In this way, plastic enter the food chain. Ocean mammals, especially whales become entangled in nets and other commercial fishing gear and often die unless they are freed by human rescuers. Commercial fisherman are too often careless exploiters of ocean life .

    [i] Wilkepedia. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Accessed online Feb 2017.
    [ii] Tatiana Schlossberg.Trillions of Plastic Bits, Swept Up by Current, Are Littering Arctic Waters. NYT Climate April 19, 2017

  • Discussions of Environmental Science and Human Ecology were developed by Environmed Research Inc. Sechelt, B.C. Canada. Online Topics were developed from the book, The Environment. You will find detailed information about the sun, weather, soils, forests, oceans, atmosphere, air pollution, climate change, water resources, air quality, energy sources, and preserving habitats.

    The Environment is available from Alpha Online as a Printed book or as an eBook Edition for Download. The 2018 edition is 286 pages.
    The Author, Stephen Gislason MD

  • Download The Environment as an eBook.

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    This book helps you understand air quality issues, normal breathing and the causes of breathing disorders.

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