Hyperactivity is a descriptive term that refers to restless, distractible
children who have a knack for disrupting order at home and at school. For the
most part these are normal children, more often boys than girls. From my
vantage, humans in general are hyperactive creatures who wander all over the
planet, cannot sit still and are easily distracted. In my view the judgment that
a child is hyperactive is usually a a problem owned by a parent or a teacher and
not problem owned by a child. This is not to argue that children by nature are
pleasant, cooperative and sociable, since this is seldom the case. It is to
argue that children, like adults come with different sizes, shapes, colors and
personalities. Some children are more social and adapt better to classrooms.
Girls have an advantage over boys, but not all girls. Some girls have male minds
and some boys have female minds. Body size and gender can be misleading.
"Hyperactive" behavior and attention
deficits are often connected so that the term attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) has been popular. Let us discard the idea of a disorder or
disease that must be treated with drugs. Let us understand that normal boys and some girls tend to be
hyperactive and when they are enclosed and constrained, they can be disruptive
of an adult sense of order. Often, bright, energetic children are diagnosed when they do not adapt well to rigid
classroom protocols. The trend toward drugging children so that they can attend
school is to be deplored.
I believe that bad food and bad air are the two
most correctable causes of extreme behavior and learning problems in children. I believe that food chemistry and delayed patterns of food allergy play an
important role in causing learning and behavioral problems in children. Whenever
children are sick or influenced by food and/or airborne chemicals, their brain
function is compromised and symptoms include disturbances of sensing, feeling,
remembering and acting. Their learning is impaired and their behavior may be
disturbed. The intention of compassionate biological management is to restore
orderly, normal functioning of the child by careful revision of environmental
conditions and food intake.
Ritalin and Amphetamines
In the US, a FDA advisory committee heard testimony indicating that 2.5
million children take stimulants for ADHD, including nearly 10 percent of all
10-year-old boys in the United States. The use of these agents is much less
prevalent in European countries, where the diagnosis of ADHD is relatively
uncommon. The popularity of the diagnosis, Adult ADHD is relatively recent
leading to at least 1.5 million adults who take stimulants on a daily basis,
with 10 percent of users older than 50 years of age. Drug-related events
reviewed by the committee included 25 cases of sudden death in children or
adults that included myocardial infarction, stroke, and serious heart
arrhythmias. The committee concluded: “We rejected the notion that the
administration of potent sympathomimetic agents to millions
is appropriate. We sought to emphasize more selective and restricted use, while
increasing awareness of potential hazards. We argued that the FDA should act
soon and decisively. “
Professor Sroufe wrote: “Three million children in the USA
take drugs for problems in focusing. Toward the end of last year, many of their
parents were deeply alarmed because there was a shortage of drugs like Ritalin
and Adderall that they considered absolutely essential to their children’s
functioning. But are these drugs really helping children? Should we really keep
expanding the number of prescriptions filled? In 30 years there has been a
twentyfold increase in the consumption of drugs for attention-deficit disorder.
As a psychologist who has been studying the development of troubled children for
more than 40 years, I believe we should be asking why we rely so heavily on
these drugs. Attention-deficit drugs increase concentration in the short term,
which is why they work so well for college students cramming for exams. But when
given to children over long periods of time, they neither improve school
achievement nor reduce behavior problems. The drugs can also have serious side
effects, including stunting growth. Sadly, few physicians and parents seem to be
aware of what we have been learning about the lack of effectiveness of these
A highly regarded Cochrane Review showed that there is only
very low-quality evidence to support the use of methylphenidate (Ritalin,
Concerta, other brands) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) leading the reviewers to urge more caution when prescribing
stimulants. Storebø and Zwi stated: "We should view the average reduction
in symptom scores attributable to treatment with a high degree of caution," they
add. "Clinicians need to weigh what we now believe to be an uncertain degree of
benefit against the many adverse events that are known to be associated with
methylphenidate, such as appetite suppression and sleep difficulties. The
general perception of methylphenidate as an effective drug for all children with
ADHD seems out of step with the new evidence. This new information from our
review should challenge the mindset of clinicians because there is more
uncertainty to factor in to balancing the benefits and risks of these
children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Cochrane
Database of Systematic Reviews. November 25 2015.)
See Dr. Gislason's Blog
I found that some "hyperactive" children were not well. Children who are not
well have physical symptoms that are linked to learning and behavioral
symptoms. They may display mood swings, inappropriate anger and sometimes are
violent. Their schoolwork suffers from inattention, disorganization, poor
memory, and behavior disruptive of orderly classrooms. ADHD may improve as
children age, but some have a long-term handicap, limited by a combination of
physical illness, poor achievement, low self-esteem, and antisocial behavior.
Several theories were advanced to explain ADHD. The theory of "minimal brain
damage or dysfunction" had many advocates. The child is viewed as having a fixed
disability, manifesting a structural problem of brain, acquired during prenatal
development or at birth. Language disability or dyslexia has also been
attributed to a fixed circuitry problem in the brain that impairs encoding and
decoding of language symbols. These brain-damage theories ignore the living,
dynamic properties of the brain; they seem to view the brain as a simple
appliance or computer that comes hardwired to behave in a certain way.
But what about the daily input of molecular substances to the brain? Can
improper food-body-brain interactions, sustained by habitual food choices,
produce the patterns of dysfunction commonly observed?
Caffeine is a problem. Hirsch reported a 252% increase in ADHD scores
(using the Connor’s scale) when children drank less than one can of caffeinated
colas. Coca cola contains 44 mg per 12 oz can and Pepsi Cola 38 mg per can. High
caffeine drinks such as Jolt and Red Bull are available in supermarkets and may
be consumed by children.
"Sugar" is often blamed for hyperactivity. Parents often observe that
children's' behavior deteriorates after eating sugar-containing foods, such as
chocolate chip cookies, cake, jello, kool-aid, pop, strawberry ice cream, or
chocolate bars. While high sugar diets are never desirable, other ingredients in
high sugar foods can also create major problems. Other food ingredients
have been identified as the culprits in children's behavioral problems such as
food dyes, mono sodium glutamate and aromatic substances. Amines in fruits, for
example, are neuroactive chemicals that produce behavioral changes when given
alone. Nutmeg is known to contain hallucinogenic substances, and cinnamon often
triggers hyperactivity and/or headaches. Several naturally occurring
polyphenolic compounds have been studied for their effects on behavior. Gardner
advanced the hypothesis that the whole range of aromatic compounds in the food
supply are chemically active in the brain.
The Food Allergy Explanation of ADHD
Many physicians have described diet revision treatment for children's'
behavioral and learning problems. Egger remarked: "A role for food allergy in
the hyperkinetic syndrome has been postulated since early this century."
ADHD can be seen as a symptom of a food-driven hypersensitivity disease. Many
children with ADHD will have symptoms and signs of delayed pattern food allergy.
We are not talking about common allergy, diagnosed by skin tests. We are talking
about delayed patterns of food allergy that cannot be detected by tests.
The "normal" foods that cause delayed food allergy effects are milk, wheat,
eggs, soya, beef, pork, chicken, and corn.
Psychopharmacology & Hyperactivity
The most researched neurochemical approach to hyperactivity is based on a
drug-neurotransmitter model of brain function. The dopamine system is involved
in reward-seeking behavior, sexual behavior, control of movement, regulation of
pituitary-hormone secretion, and memory functions. A model of schizophrenia
postulates increased or unregulated dopamine circuits and drugs which block
dopamine activity reduce the schizophrenic syndrome. An interesting
neurochemical relationship between hyperactivity and schizophrenia has been
postulated, where the two conditions seem to have opposite features.
ADHD may be attributed to dopamine deficiency. Dopamine synthesis slowly
increases as children grow and may not reach full capacity until late teens.
This is one of the built-in maturation lags which prevents some children from
assuming adult-like behavior in their early life. Dopamine in young animals
exerts a protective influence against hyperactivity. Since schizophrenia is
associated with increased dopaminergic activity and is improved by
dopamine-blocking agents, there is a reciprocal relationship between psychosis
Nutritional strategies may attempt to modify the amino acid profile of the
diet to encourage dopamine synthesis by augmenting intake of phenylalanine and
tyrosine and supplying extra cofactor, Vitamin.B6 (pyridoxine). A more direct
drug approach is to utilize molecules that stimulate dopamine circuits or act as
dopamine agonists - options have included pemoline, L-dopa, bromocriptine,
amantadine, and lergotrile.
Ritalin and amphetamines increase dopaminergic activity and decrease
hyperactivity while they increase stereotypy. Ritalin has become the "drug of
choice" for children with ADHD. Ritalin therapy poses many risks, some obvious
and others concealed. Any child treated with Ritalin is moved from the
hyperactivity end of the spectrum toward a schizophrenia-like state. The most obvious Ritalin effect is appetite suppression and retarded growth.
Some parents complain that their Ritalin-treated child acts like a "zombie".
They describe emotional blunting and detachment from family and friends, a mild
schizophrenic attribute. Children on higher doses and chronic use may manifest
paranoid features - withdrawal, anger, restless, suspicious behavior.
Adults who abuse amphetamines regularly develop a psychotic state with
paranoid features. Ritalin may also produce disruption of movement control in a
few unlucky children. Facial and head tics may appear, and, in the Tourette's
syndrome progress to peculiar grunting and respiratory tics, associated with
compulsive behaviors, manifesting stereotypy. No drug which works on the
dopamine system is free of long term toxicity on the motor system.
Studies on the effects of long term Ritalin use show the mixed results
expected from a symptomatic drug therapy which does nothing to remove the
underlying cause of the disorder. In all drug-related studies of ADHD, there is
no consideration of dietary variables, nor any thought that the learning and
behavior problems are just symptoms of a more pervasive illness. The reviewers
of drug studies discover that ADHD continues through adolescence into adult
experience. The names for the disorder change as patients age and accumulate
social and interpersonal problems.
Hechtman reviewed the outcome of children treated with Ritalin. She stated:
"Thus, stimulant treatment in childhood does not seem to secure a positive
adolescent outcome for the hyperactive. However, studies that have combined
stimulants with other multimodal interventions... do suggest more positive
I propose a multimodal therapy which repairs the attention deficit disorder
with effective, diet revision therapy; repairs academic deficits by appropriate
remedial education; repairs lost self-esteem by family and child counseling; and
maintains normal functioning by supporting the family effort to sustain proper
diet, learning and social opportunities. A brief review of these concepts
The Physical Symptoms
I created a profile of children who were not well and were not doing well in
school. The most common symptoms were allergic shiners (dark circles under the eyes)
and stuffy nose. These kids tended to have histories of nose congestion, recurrent
middle-ear infections, and sleep disturbances, starting in infancy. Some had
more specific allergic problems such as eczema, hives, and asthma but most have
non-specific symptoms that do not fit the familiar patterns of allergy.
Digestive disturbances were common. Some had headaches and many had leg
pains at night. Often parents stated that the child had recurring
colds or flus and were prescribed antibiotics too frequently.
Preschool infants with food problems tended to fussy eating with
strong food preferences and refusal to eat many healthy foods. These children
frustrated their mothers who eventually accepted their idiosyncratic eating patterns.
Children with food allergy typically became eating specialists - compulsively
eating a small number of "favorite" foods and refusing the rest. Vegetable foods
were the first foods refused, often in favor of compulsive eating of fruit
juices, dairy or wheat products.
When you see a four year girl in her pink dress with bows in her hair,
allergic shiners and stuffy nose, screaming and writhing in the aisle of the
supermarket because her mother will not let her keep the bag of candy she just
snitched from the shelf, you can
predict years of difficulty for this child and her parents unless they are
successful in controlling her food supply. Their success is doubtful for many
reasons - even if they are highly motivated and well informed, the little girl
in the pink dress will not comply willingly and will show every behavior of a
committed food addict for years to come.
Proper Diet Revision
Symptoms often cleared dramatically when food selection was
changed. The details of a successful food plan varied from individual to
individual. The most globally successful diet revision in all these illnesses
involved complete diet revision.
- Selective "elimination diets" tend not to work.
- There are no tests for this type of food allergy.
- The proper technique of diet revision therapy is designed to solve
simultaneous problems in the child's food supply.
Consideration is given to
- minimizing exposure to food additives
- choosing nourishing, primary, low allergenic foods as dietary staples,
- assuring nutrient adequacy by careful monitoring of the child's food intake.
Brief Note on Delayed Pattern Food Allergy
I am referring to delayed food allergy, not the more obvious immediate food
allergic reactions. Delayed patterns of food allergy are not so obvious and
generally go unrecognized. Allergy skin tests do not show this problem nor do
blood tests for antibodies such as RAST or ELIZA. Delayed patterns of food
allergy are responsible for causing specific diseases such as asthma and eczema
and also common but ill-defined illness patterns in children.