Elemental nutrient formulas (ENFs) are hypoallergenic and represent the ultimate reduction of food.
ENFs have been called "Space Diets". By replacing food intake with a chemically defined
nutrient formula, the body does not have to deal with a host of non-nutrient
chemicals. Nutrient formulas that could replace food completely were first used
in research and hospital applications. The first formula produced by
Environmed Research in 1990 was called ENFood. Several studies demonstrated normal functioning with health benefits
for volunteers living on ENFs for weeks at a time.
NASA sponsored ENF development to define the minimum weight and volume
requirement for human food. A variety of ENFs had been designed and tested by
various research and commercial groups over the past 4 decades. ENFs had been
used to manage serious digestive diseases and to provide adequate nourishment
when eating food was undesirable or impossible. Early formulas were often
administered by tube feeding. Taste and texture were not important. Early
applications of ENFs included pre- and post-operative nutrition, the treatment
of diarrhea, malabsorption, malnutrition, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis,
pancreatic disease, and short gut syndrome.
An essential property of the Alpha ENF we designed was the avoidance of all
forms of food allergy. The main problem with foods is the supply of a wild
mixture of proteins, often in surplus. Proteins trigger immune responses. When
proteins are commercially processed or digested, peptides are produced that also
trigger immune responses. Instead of adding proteins to Alpha ENF, a complete
set of free form amino acids supply the protein requirement. Amino acids do not
trigger immune responses.
If food problems are suspected of causing an illness, a trial of clearing on
an ENF would confirm or deny food involvement usually within 10-14 days. If the
ENF clearing proved successful, the Alpha Nutrition Program style of food
reintroduction could become a standard method of redefining a safe diet. By the
early 80's it became apparent that there were new opportunities to apply ENFs to
solving common health problems. A new theory of food allergy emerged to explain
common and chronic diseases such as asthma, eczema, hives, migraine headaches,
chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome and a number of other conditions.
Evidence also linked food protein antigens and immune-modulating substances in
food to inflammatory bowel disease, and to several autoimmune diseases; Crohn's
Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus Erythematosis, and possibly Multiple
The Design and Structure of Alpha ENF & PMX
Nutrition is built of basic building blocks. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins
are typical components of foods. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients.
Alpha ENF & PMX is formulated by assembling nutrients into modules. The first
way to think about modules is to assemble ingredients according to their
classification - vitamins, minerals, sugars, fats, amino acids etc. This is an
obvious way to measure and mix ingredients in the laboratory to make a formula.
Alpha ENF & PMX contains all these nutrient modules.
Different carbohydrates provide the structure of plants and the energy we
derive from plant foods arrives as sugars. Digestion reduces the complex
carbohydrates to simple sugars, which act as fuel in our body. Similarly fats
and proteins are complex structures in foods which are digested into
fatty acids and amino acids. Fat is the second most important source of energy.
Another way to think about nutritional modules is to consider the
different functions that nutrients serve:
Energy The first thing we need from a nutritional formula is energy. If you
are designing such a formula, you have to decide what fuels you are going to add
to supply energy. Living cells are glucose-burning machines. Animals take
advantage of the ability of plants to manufacture sugar and other nutrients.
Energy is locked into the molecular bonds of a few basic fuel molecules:
glucose, fructose, fatty acids, and amino acids. This energy is released as the
energy-supplying molecules are dismantled by oxidation. Food-derived energy
allows us to move, to do work by muscle contraction, and to keep warm. Body heat
is generated by the metabolic activity of every cell. Carbohydrates and fats are
the principle sources of energy, although amino acids may be utilized as energy.
Combustion of amino acids requires the excretion of nitrogen, which is first
converted to ammonia. Glutamine is the shuttle which carries ammonia from
rapidly-metabolizing tissues to the liver. The liver converts ammonia to urea,
which is delivered to the kidneys for excretion in the urine.
Optimal Nutrient Intake Helps Olympic Athletes Win
The energy requirement of any individual is determined by physical activity.
Your energy balances shift with variations in food intake and activity level. A
healthy, active adult will usually spend 1000-3000 Kcal per day of food energy
(or approximately 33Kcal/Kg). Daily physical exercise is beneficial and tends to
promote normal body weight, with energy intake matching output. With food
restriction, increased metabolic efficiency allows the body to do better with
less. This increased efficiency, induced by caloric restriction, tends to
frustrate people seeking to lose weight.
Electrolytes The next functional module of great importance
is electrolytes - the salts dissolved in water which form the basis of blood and
cellular function.. Sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate are the
essential electrolytes which should arrive in proportion to each other and in
the right amounts for proper body function Water is essential and intake
determines the concentration of electrolytes in the blood and tissue fluids. The
right amount of water is important - more is almost always better than less.
Alpha ENF & PMX provide a balanced set of electrolytes including phosphate,
which is essential to energy storage and transfer.
The antioxidants are provided in generous
quantities in Alpha ENF & PMX because of their many potential health benefits.
Vitamin C, beta carotene, vitamin E and selenium scavenge free oxygen radicals.
Cellular combustion can be compared to a wood stove, which needs adequate
protection to do its job without burning the house down. As we burn fuel in our
cells, some oxygen atoms are given an extra electron and become the radical,
O2-. If O2- floats free of the energy engines, it may interact with and damage
Cell membranes are vulnerable to O2- injury; damaged membranes disturb the
function of the entire cell. Extra O2- reacting with DNA can make the code
sticky and can cause mistakes in code reading or replication, resulting in cell
mutation. The cumulative damage of trillions of random O2- encounters with
critical molecules over many years contributes to accelerated aging and cellular
dysfunction. Cells contain oxygen detoxification enzymes: peroxidases,
superoxide dismutase, and catalases. The nutrients that combine harmlessly with
O2- and are referred to as "antioxidants". Vitamin C is the cheapest, safest,
and best antioxidant in town. If you can raise the amount of Vitamin C in cells,
you may soak up enough O2- to make a long-term difference. The effect of Vitamin
C is enhanced if you present three other nutrient antioxidants alongside,
Vitamin E, beta carotene, and selenium.
The Importance of No Proteins, No peptides
One of the therapeutic secrets of ENFs the avoidance of proteins or pieces of
proteins known as peptides. Proteins are the most reactive molecules in food
allergic disease. Staple foods such as milk, eggs, wheat, and meat contain
proteins that frequently causes immune responses and are the basic problem in
delayed patterns of food allergy. Protein powders sold as "body-building"
supplements are also a source of trouble. Protein powders are often made from
cheap proteins such as milk protein (casein, whey), egg white (albumin), soya
proteins, or hydrolyzed vegetable proteins.
Alpha ENF avoids the protein problems by using a
balanced set of pure amino acids instead of proteins or partially hydrolyzed
proteins. Amino acids are the real nutrients derived from proteins by digestion
of food. Amino acids do not trigger immune responses. Free amino acids are much
more expensive than protein powders, but freeing the immune system from protein
challenge is well-worth the cost.
Amino Acids Instead of proteins, free amino acids are provided in
Alpha ENF & PMX. A complete set of the nine essential amino acids is
complemented by 10 of the non-essential amino acids. Both Alpha ENF and Alpha
PMX contain branch-chain amino acids; higher concentration in Alpha PMX
is designed to enhance muscle action and growth. Leucine in particular seems to
promote muscle growth, acting in concert with insulin. The other two
branch-chain amino acids, isoleucine and valine, may also supply muscle fuel if
impairment of glucose utilization occurs. Arginine has been effective in
improving tissue repair and can be considered growth-promoting. The technique of
amino acid proportioning is a frontier in nutritional programming for athletic
Neurotransmitters Some of these amino acids are not destined to be
included in body proteins but will be used as neurotransmitters. Tyrosine and
phenylalanine, for example, are converted to dopamine, noradrenalin and
adrenalin. Trytophan is converted into serotonin. Other neurotransmitter
substrates are not amino acids. Choline, for example, becomes acetylcholine and
is provided in Alpha ENF & PMX, even though it is not considered an essential
nutrient. Acetylcholine is the transmitter used to pass the millions of messages
per second which transfer brain movement maps into coordinated muscle movement.
If the supply of acetylcholine is low or limited, no amount of training or good
intention will avoid performance failure. Some power-down effects must be due to
transmitter exhaustion. Choline is the substrate for this transmitter. A
study of blood choline levels in runners demonstrated a 40% drop in choline
levels following the Boston marathon. Thiamin is the cofactor for this synthesis
and is C1 and PMX. Glycine itself is a major neurotransmitter in the
spinal cord. Glutamate is another important amino acid - neurotransmitter.