There is a curiously modern confusion about the difference between boys and
girls. In the age of democratic idealism and radical feminism, there is a
tendency to demand equality for male and female and to insist that both sexes
are equally suited or females are better suited to fulfill all human identities
and roles. There is confusion about what the differences are and who does what
to whom. Old prejudices prevail and wrong ideas flourish. Any meaningful
discussion of gender differences must begin with the recognition that body and
psyche gender may not match. Not all females think, feel and act like females
and not all males think, feel and act like males.
You do not require a scientist to tell you that girls and boys are different
and will inevitably pursue different goals and interests or the same goals and
interests differently. What the scientist can do is measure and account for
gender differences in a more precise manner. This is not to argue that women
should be denied any opportunity that is available to them. It is to argue that
women should expect to be treated equally in terms of job opportunities, pay,
promotion and social benefits. This is to argue that men and women are different
and often do best pursing divergent social and professional paths. The needs,
strengths and weaknesses of each gender can be better understood. The negative
impact of gender differences is minimized if they are recognized and each person
develops appropriate expectations.
Everyone knows that the genotype, chromosome pair XX, produces the female
phenotype and the XY chromosome pair denotes male. Men inherit their X
chromosomes from their mothers and are vulnerable to genetic defects carried on
the X chromosome such as color blindness and fragile X syndrome, a form of
mental retardation. Normal variation allows for body sex to have a different
mind sex and for sexual experimentation that goes beyond innate determinants.
Not all girls like boys or fall in love with boys; not all girls act like girls
and not all girls feel like girls inside. A similar variation is seen in boys.
Even individuals who start out with congruent body and psychic gender may be
altered by hormones, environmental factors, foods, injury, drugs, chemical
pollution and disease. The expressions of sexual programs in the brain
change with the chemical and hormonal milieu in the body.
argue that feminine and masculine traits can be mixed in a variety of ways in
bodies that have either male or female sex organs. The penis and vagina do not
guarantee the gender of the mind. Every woman carries a double dose of the X
chromosome. One of X chromosomes is fully expressed and the other is selectively
expressed. Willard and Carrel found that 15% of the genes on the inactive X
chromosome were active in every human sample they examined. Another 10% of genes
from the inactive X were expressed in some of the samples. They concluded
that "Every female is expressing a different subset of X-linked genes at
different levels.” They suggested that women get a higher dose of these genes
than men; these genes may underlie traits that differ between the sexes and
traits that differ among women.
Mixed genders need not be programmed in DNA but may be developmental
variations. If the chromosomes are intact, male and female bodies are created.
The XY chromosome pair specifies testes that produce testosterone in utero. The
XX chromosome pair specifies ovaries that produce estrogen in utero. The body
sex has to be linked to brain programs that determine the gender
characteristics: gender-image, gender feelings, gender-specific social
priorities, gender behavior, mate attraction and bonding.
All embryos are females until turned into males; the critical event for males
is the secretion of androgens in utero. The androgen signal is required to match
a male psyche with the male body. In the absence of testosterone, mammals
develop along feminine lines, regardless of genetic sex. Oddly, high doses of
estrogen and other steroids prenatally can also masculinize a fetus.
Testosterone promotes the growth of a male set of ducts and dihydrotestosterone
directs the growth of the penis and scrotum. Both hormones influence brain
development. The simplest brain sex-determining rules are:
If the androgen signal is weak or absent in utero and/or shortly after birth,
the brain continues on a female course.
A female embryo can be converted to a male psyche with a female body by too
much androgen in utero.
A female embryo can be defeminized by blocking early estrogen.
The hypothalamus and amygdala are prime targets for sex hormones.
Fich and Dannenberg suggested that animal research revealed the basic
patterns of hormone influence on the development of male and female behaviors.
For example, they stated: "The manipulations of neonatal androgens affected
adult sexual behavior. Female guinea pigs exposed to testosterone by various
regimes during the prenatal period increased male-typical sexual behavior
(mounting). These subjects also decreased female-typical behavior (lordosis)
when, as adults, they were gonadectomized, primed with estrogen and
progesterone, and tested for sexual receptivity. Similarly, male rats castrated
at birth reduced male-typical sexual behaviors and increased feminine behaviors
in adulthood. These same behavioral patterns were seen in adult male rodents
exposed prenatally to stress or alcohol, which disrupts the prenatal
testosterone surge in male fetuses. These effects are mediated by aromatization
of testosterone to estrogen, since sexual behavior can be masculinized in
females and reinstated in neonatally castrated males with early administration
of a synthetic estrogen or high doses of estradiol. Estrogen has also been shown
to act asymmetrically in the hypothalamus to modify reproductive behavior of the
female rat. Estradiol pellets were placed in the left or right ventromedial
nucleus during the first two days of life. In adulthood, subjects were
ovariectomized and primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone. Subjects
with left-sided implants showed reduced lordosis as compared to right-sided
implants and cholesterol control. Nordeen and Yahr also found masculinizing
effects of estradiol, with local implantation in the right preoptic area leading
to increased mounting behavior in adulthood."
Without selective breeding practices, the male/female ratio is remarkably
constant in human populations. Preference for male offspring in Asia and Africa
has produced alarming increases in the male population. Female fetuses are
selectively aborted and female newborns are neglected or killed. Hesketh and Zhu
Wei Xing suggested:” There are an estimated 80 million missing females in India
and China alone. The large cohorts of surplus males now reaching adulthood are
predominantly of low socioeconomic class… their lack of marriageability, and
consequent marginalization in society, may lead to antisocial behavior and
violence, threatening societal stability and security.
- The book, I and Thou, focuses on intimate relationships. Innate tendencies are hard at
work when people meet, become lovers and end with arguments and fighting. The
same tendencies determine how family members interact and explain why so many
families are “dysfunctional.” When lovers form an enduring pair bond, they often
become parents and everything changes. Humans seek bonding with others and are
distressed when they become isolated. Humans bond to each other in several ways.
The most enduring bonds are kin-related, based on closely shared genes. The
deepest bonding occurs when mother and infant are together continuously from
birth and mother breast-feeds the infant. Bonds among family members are the
most enduring. Bonds to friends, lovers and spouses are the next most
significant. Bonds to colleagues, neighbors and even strangers that are admired
from a distance are next. Friendships are often temporary bonds, based on the
need to affiliate with others for protection, social status, feeding, sex and
- I and Thou is available in a print and an eBook edition for
download. 199 Pages.
I and Thou eBook
Persona Digital publishes a series of books on current topics in
psychology, music, neuroscience and philosophy. eBooks and can be downloaded to any
destination on the planet. Printed books and eBooks are ordered from Alpha
Online. Printed books are shipped only to Canada and the USA by postal
services. Prices are in Canadian Dollars. US Prices are lower, depending of the
exchange rate. The author is
Stephen Gislason MD
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